Globalization has made a tremendous impact on all spheres of our life and education is no exception. It has given rise to a lot of challenges in education especially on the quality of education. To meet these growing demands a lot of changes are being made in the field of education and one such change is in the field of learner evaluation. Evaluation is widely acknowledged as a powerful means of improving the quality of education. It plays a key role in deciding what the learners learn and what the teachers teach in schools. Effectively planned evaluation can promote learning, build confidence and develop students' understanding of themselves as active learners. The introduction of Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE) is considered as one of the major steps taken in this regard to improve and strengthen the quality of learner evaluation. Continuous evaluation is an approach that would capture the full range of learners' performance. CCE will lead to diagnosis, remediation and enhancement of learning.
CCE refers Continuous & Comprehensive Evaluation, a system of school based assessment that covers all the aspects of a student’s development. It was designed to reduce the student stress related to board exams, and to introduce a uniform and comprehensive pattern for student evaluation across the country. It emphasizes on two broad objectives: (a) Continuity in Evaluation and (b) Assessment of broad based learning. Clearly, it attempts to shift emphasis from ‘testing’ to ‘holistic learning’ with an aim of creating young adults, possessing appropriate skills and desirable qualities in addition to academic excellence.
Teachers and administrators would thus be able to assess learners' progress and would have time to correct the problems. According to National Curriculum Framework (NCF, 2005) CCE has frequently been cited as the only meaningful kind of evaluation and it also requires much more careful thinking through about when it is to be employed in a system effectively. Such evaluation places a lot of demand on teachers' time and ability to maintain meticulous records if it is to be meaningfully executed and if it is to have any reliability as an assessment.
Objectives of CCE -
1. Encourage development of cognitive skills and de-emphasize rote learning
2. Make the entire education process a student-centric activity
3. Help develop cognitive, psychomotor and interpersonal skills
4. Make holistic evaluation an integral part of entire education process
5. Improve student's accomplishments through regular diagnostics and remedial instructions
6. Use evaluation to control quality and maintain desired performance
7. Take decisions about the learner, learning process and learning environment by determining social utility, desirability & effectiveness of the program
1. Scholastic Evaluation
2. Co- Scholastic Evaluation
The ‘comprehensive’ component of CCE takes care of assessment of all round development of the child’s personality. It includes assessment in Scholastic as well as Co-Scholastic aspects of the pupil’s growth.
Assessment in Scholastic areas is done informally and formally using multiple techniques of evaluation continually and periodically. There are 2 types of Assessments, in an academic year, to test the Scholastic areas: Formative Assessment (FA) and Summative Assessment (SA)
Formative Assessment: FA is carried out as a part of the instruction methodology and provides continuous feedback to both the teachers and the learners. It comprises of Class work, Homework, Oral questions, Quizzes, Projects, and Assignments/Tests etc.
Summative Assessment: Summative assessment is carried out at the end of a term. It measures how much a student has learnt from the course and is usually a graded test i.e. Examination.
Evaluation of Scholastic Areas (2) An academic year is divided into 2 terms and in each term there will be 2 FAs & 1 SA and weightage is allotted to each in the following manner
Formative Assessment totals to 40% and Summative Assessment totals to 60% and grades are given on a 9 point grading scale.
Assessment in Co-Scholastic areas is done using multiple techniques on the basis of identified criteria. Assessment of Co-scholastic areas is done at the end of the year on a 5 point grading scale. Co-Scholastic areas of evaluation include
1. Life Skills i.e. Thinking, Social & Emotional Skills
2. Attitude & Values i.e. towards Teachers, School-mates, School Programs, Environment and the Value System
3. Co-curricular Activities which are further divided into
Activities - Literary & Creative Skills, Scientific Skills, Visual & Performing Arts, Leadership & Organization Skills and other Co-curricular activities,
Health and Physical Education, that includes areas like Sports, NCC, and Gardening etc.
The role and importance of Co-scholastic areas of evaluation has been further emphasized by an up-gradation policy of CBSE that allows students to upgrade their Scholastic grades depending on performance in co-scholastic areas.
1. CCE implemented in a hurry, thus teachers are still very much on the starting block in terms of comprehension and adoption of CCE
2. The success of CCE is largely hinged on the adoption of the model by the teachers
3. So far, our teachers have been conditioned to the traditional system of evaluation and will take time to understand, apply and realize the value of the CCE
4. It is an evolving methodology which implies teachers need to be continually educated to ensure that they are equipped with necessary knowledge and skills
5. Due to hasty implementation of CCE students are facing increased stress and pressure in the form of project work
6. Implementation ambiguity at teacher’s level has resulted into an overdose of project work for students, resulting in lesser time for self-study
7. A typical report card runs into 6-7 pages
8. Manual generation of report cards can take anywhere between a couple of weeks to a month
9. Although the entire process of student evaluation is decentralized, CBSE holds control on issuing the final certificate of assessment to Class X students which requires schools to send student’s performance data for Classes IX & X electronically to the board at the end of the academic session that further calls for maintenance of performance data in different formats by the school, resulting in duplication of effort
10. Result is increased stress for teachers
11. No uniform model of recording the assessment has been followed anywhere so far
12. Personal attention for the students by the teachers, which is important for the success of CCE, is not possible in many schools as the student-teacher ratio is widely skewed, ranging from 40 to 60, thus resulting in ‘efficiency and effectiveness’ related issues